Throughout history, sports have been an influential way to represent communities. They can also be instrumental in creating traditions and national identities.
The use of sports as national symbols can be problematic, however. It can be xenophobic or chauvinistic. During the early 20th century, the use of sports as national symbols was associated with a number of political struggles. In particular, the role of sports was a focus for the struggle for independence from Austria and Russia.
The sport of cricket is seen as the national symbol of England. This sport embodies the values of upper-class Englishmen. It is also closely connected with religion and culture.
The modernization of sports can be traced to the late 17th and 18th centuries. The creation of rules to regulate the sport, as well as the notion of equality, led to the creation of age, height, and weight classes in modern sports.
In the 19th century, Slavic gymnastics movement known as Sokol began to emerge. This sport was developed to rationalize competition.
The 20th century saw the development of cosmopolitan cultures and the advent of global economies. The rise of national sports organizations led to the globalization of sports. This process can be seen as the development of a network of interdependencies.
The globalization of sports has been characterized by the standardization of rules and the establishment of national sports organizations. It has also been marketed as a means of highlighting distinctions and pleasure.